Aim of MoLSoL

Skip the hassle of manual calculations. Our app instantly provides the precise mass needed to prepare your solution, saving you time and effort in the lab.

Description of  MoLSoL

It is crucial to accurately prepare your solutions when you perform your biological experiments. This app provides the required mass of compounds to prepare your desired concentration and volume in molarity, mass per volume, and mass per volume percent formats. Users enter the compound's name, the desired concentration, and the volume to prepare. The app returns the mass, along with properties of the compound such as molecular weight, exact weight, canonical smile and molecular formula obtained from PubChem. Additionally, the app provides the concentration conversion coefficient from molarity to weight per volume or weight per volume% or vice versa. This app presents you with detailed physical property data fetched from the PubChem database, whenever the data is available, including solubility parameters such as XLogP, TPSA, net charge, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor counts, rotatable bond count, count of non-hydrogen atoms, and analytical volume of compound. The data is tabulated for your reference.

MoLSoL tasks


Molarity, denoted as M, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution. It represents the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution. The formula to calculate molarity is:

Molarity (M)= moles of solute / volume of solution [litre]​

In molecular biology experiments, molarity is a crucial parameter used to prepare solutions of reagents, such as buffers, enzymes, and nucleic acids, at specific concentrations. Here's how molarity is useful in molecular biology:

Accuracy in Reagent Preparation: Molarity allows researchers to precisely control the concentration of reagents used in experiments. This is critical for ensuring reproducibility and accuracy of experimental results.

Reaction Stoichiometry: Many molecular biology reactions, such as PCR, cloning, and protein assays, require specific ratios of reactants for optimal performance. Molarity helps researchers calculate the exact amounts of each component needed based on their molecular weights and desired final concentrations.

Enzyme Kinetics: Enzyme-catalysed reactions in molecular biology often follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, where the rate of reaction depends on the substrate concentration. By controlling the molarity of substrates, researchers can study enzyme kinetics and determine important parameters like enzyme activity and Km (Michaelis constant).

DNA/RNA Quantification: In nucleic acid quantification assays like qPCR and RNA-seq, accurately determining the molarity of DNA or RNA samples is essential for calculating copy numbers, gene expression levels, and other quantitative measurements.

Molarity is a fundamental concept in molecular biology that enables researchers to prepare solutions with precise concentrations, facilitating various experimental procedures and analyses.


Weight per volume:

Weight per volume concentration, often expressed in milligrams per millilitre (mg/mL), represents the mass of a solute dissolved in a given volume of solution, where the solution comprises both the solvent and the solute. It is a measure of the concentration of a substance in a solution, where the mass of the solute is expressed in milligrams and the volume of the solution is expressed in millilitres. The formula to calculate weight per volume is:

Weight per volume =mass of solute [mg] / volume of solution [mL]​

In molecular biology experiments, weight per volume concentration is commonly used in various applications:

Preparation of Stock Solutions: Scientists use weight per volume concentration to prepare stock solutions of reagents, enzymes, buffers, or other substances needed for experiments. By knowing the desired concentration and volume, researchers can accurately measure the mass of the solute needed to achieve the desired concentration in a given volume of solution.

Dilution Series: Weight per volume concentration is essential for creating dilution series of solutions with varying concentrations. Researchers dilute a stock solution to obtain solutions with lower concentrations, enabling them to perform experiments across a range of concentrations.

Standardization of Assays: In biochemical and enzymatic assays, weight per volume concentration ensures the accurate preparation of assay components, allowing researchers to standardize experimental conditions and obtain reliable results.

Media preparation: In bacterial cell culture experiments, weight per volume concentration is used to prepare culture media, supplements, and antibiotics. Properly formulated media with the correct concentrations of nutrients and additives are crucial for cell growth, viability, and experimental reproducibility.

Weight per volume concentration is a fundamental parameter in molecular biology experiments, facilitating accurate solution preparation, assay standardization, and reproducible research outcomes.


Weight per volume %:
Weight per volume percentage (% w/v) is a concentration measurement representing the amount of solute (in grams) present in a given volume of solution (in millilitres). It is calculated by dividing the mass of the solute by the volume of the solution and then multiplying by 100 to express the result as a percentage.  The formula for calculating weight per volume percentage is:

Weight per volume % = mass of solute [g] / volume of solution [mL]​ * 100

In molecular biology experiments, weight per volume percentage is commonly used to prepare solutions with a specific concentration of a solute. For example, it can be used to prepare culture media, buffers, or stock solutions of reagents. By accurately determining the weight of the solute and the volume of the solution, researchers can ensure that the desired concentration of the solute is achieved, allowing for reproducible and reliable experimental results.


Exact mass and molecular weight :

Exact mass and molecular weight are both measurements related to the mass of molecules, but they represent slightly different concepts:

Exact Mass: Exact mass refers to the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule, including the natural isotopic abundances of each atom. It provides the precise mass of a molecule, taking into account the specific isotopes present in the molecule. Exact mass is typically expressed in atomic mass units [amu] or daltons [Da]. It is a more accurate measurement compared to the average molecular weight because it considers the isotopic composition of the elements.

Molecular Weight: Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass or formula weight, is the average mass of a molecule relative to the unified atomic mass unit [u] based on the average atomic masses of the constituent atoms. It is calculated by summing the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, using the average atomic masses found in the periodic table. Molecular weight does not account for the natural isotopic abundances of atoms and assumes that all atoms are composed of the most abundant isotopes. Molecular weight is often used in chemical calculations and is expressed in atomic mass units [amu] or grams per mole [g/mol].


XLogP (Partition Coefficient):

XLogP, or the partition coefficient, is a measure of the lipophilicity or hydrophobicity of a compound. It represents the ratio of the concentration of a compound distributed between two immiscible phases, typically octanol and water. A higher XLogP value indicates greater lipophilicity, meaning the compound is more likely to partition into non-polar environments like cell membranes. Generally, higher XLogP values indicate lower solubility. XLogP is commonly used in drug design to predict a compound's ability to penetrate biological membranes and affect its pharmacokinetic properties.


Topological Polar Surface Area (TPSA):

TPSA represents the sum of the surface area of polar atoms (typically oxygen and nitrogen) in a molecule, considering their contribution to hydrogen bonding. It quantifies the molecule's ability to form hydrogen bonds with solvent molecules or biological targets. High TPSA values indicate a higher likelihood of interaction with polar solvents or biological macromolecules through hydrogen bonding. TPSA is often used in drug design to predict compound solubility, membrane permeability, and interactions with protein binding sites.  In general, a higher TPSA value indicates a larger surface area of the molecule that is polar, which can potentially increase its interactions with water molecules and thereby improve its solubility. However, the relationship between TPSA and solubility can be influenced by various factors, including the specific molecular structure, the presence of functional groups, and the overall shape of the molecule.

While higher TPSA values can correlate with increased solubility for some compounds, it is not a definitive predictor of solubility on its own. Other molecular properties and factors, such as molecular size, hydrogen bonding capacity, and overall hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, also play crucial roles in determining a compound's solubility behaviour. Therefore, TPSA should be considered alongside other molecular descriptors and experimental data when assessing solubility.


Total (or Net) Charge:

The total charge of a molecule is the sum of the charges of its constituent atoms, accounting for the transfer of electrons and any formal charges present. It determines the overall electrostatic nature of the molecule, influencing its interactions with other molecules, particularly in solution or biological environments. A net positive charge indicates an excess of protons (cationic), while a net negative charge indicates an excess of electrons (anionic). Charge is crucial in biological processes such as enzyme-substrate interactions, ion transport across cell membranes, and protein-ligand binding.


Number of Hydrogen-Bond Donors and Acceptors:

Hydrogen-bond donors are atoms (usually hydrogen) capable of donating a hydrogen bond.

Hydrogen-bond acceptors are atoms (often oxygen or nitrogen) capable of accepting a hydrogen bond. The number of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors in a molecule affects its ability to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules, influencing its solubility, reactivity, and binding affinity. These properties are essential considerations in drug design, as hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in ligand-receptor interactions and drug solubility.


Number of Rotatable Bonds: (Not available in version 1.2.1)

Rotatable bonds refer to single bonds in a molecule that can freely rotate around their axis.

The number of rotatable bonds indicates the molecule's conformational flexibility or the degree of freedom for molecular rotation. Compounds with a higher number of rotatable bonds are more flexible, potentially adopting multiple conformations in solution or when binding to biological targets. In drug design, considering the number of rotatable bonds helps optimize compound rigidity and improve pharmacokinetic properties such as metabolic stability and oral bioavailability.


Number of Non-Hydrogen Atoms: (Not available in version 1.2.1)

The number of non-hydrogen atoms in a molecule provides insight into its molecular size and complexity. It includes atoms of all elements except hydrogen and reflects the overall molecular weight and complexity. The number of non-hydrogen atoms influences various properties such as molecular volume, surface area, and chemical reactivity. Non-hydrogen atom count is a fundamental descriptor in chemical informatics, aiding in compound classification, similarity analysis, and property prediction.


Analytic Volume of the First Diverse Conformer:

The analytic volume of the first diverse conformer represents the spatial volume occupied by the molecule's most diverse or representative conformer. It quantifies the molecular size and shape, considering the steric arrangement of atoms and bonds. Analyzing the volume of the diverse conformer provides insights into the compound's 3D structure and its potential interactions with binding sites or solvent molecules. Understanding molecular volume aids in drug design, particularly in optimizing ligand-receptor interactions and predicting compound solubility, permeability, and binding affinity.