The Looming Crisis of Antibiotic Resistance

The current situation with antibiotics is concerning due to the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human medicine, agriculture, and livestock have accelerated the development of these resistant strains. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria evolve mechanisms to withstand the effects of antibiotics, rendering the drugs ineffective against them. This poses a significant threat to human health as common infections become harder to treat, leading to prolonged illnesses, increased mortality rates, and higher healthcare costs. Infections that were once easily curable with antibiotics, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and urinary tract infections, are becoming more difficult to treat. Without effective antibiotics, routine medical procedures like surgeries, chemotherapy, and organ transplants become riskier due to the potential for bacterial infections. Even minor injuries could become life-threatening if antibiotic-resistant infections take hold. Looking into the future, if the current trend continues unchecked, the problem of antibiotic resistance will likely worsen. Without the development of new antibiotics or alternative treatments, we could face a scenario where even common infections become untreatable. This emphasizes the urgent need for concerted efforts to combat antibiotic resistance through responsible antibiotic use, development of new drugs, improved diagnostics, and innovative approaches to infection control.  One of the key tools in this fight is the comprehensive organization and standardization of knowledge about antibiotic resistance. By systematically categorizing and detailing the mechanisms, genes, and phenotypes associated with resistance, we can create a unified resource that enhances our collective understanding and response to this growing threat.

Aim of AMROX 

The Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO) is an essential resource in the fight against antibiotic resistance, organizing and standardizing knowledge about resistance mechanisms, genes, and phenotypes. By leveraging ARO at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD), scientists and healthcare providers can gain deeper insights into how bacteria resist antibiotics and develop more effective strategies to combat these infections. Our app, AMROX, utilizes CARD ARO to provide comprehensive descriptions of AMR genes entered by users and allows users to search for AMR genes using keywords found in these descriptions. This functionality provides a portal for researchers and clinicians to quickly access relevant information, enhancing their understanding and management of antibiotic resistance.

Simplified Access to Antibiotic Resistance Gene and antibiotic Information


  • Enter an Antibiotic Resistant Gene Name: By entering the name of an antibiotic-resistant gene, users can retrieve comprehensive descriptions of that specific gene. Please refrain from using spaces in the gene name, such as "tem 1," as it will not be recognized. Instead, use "tem1," "tem-1," or "tem_1" for accurate identification. Only one gene name is accepted at a time.


  • Keyword-Based Search: Users can enter up to 5 keywords. A stepper is provided to let users select the number of keywords they wish to enter. Once the number is selected, the keyword entry fields appear on the same view. Users can then input their desired keywords into the text fields. The border colour of the text field indicates the status of the keyword: a gray border means the keyword is excluded from the search, while a blue border means it is included. Additionally, users can utilize a toggle switch between text fields to create Boolean combinations for their search, enabling more precise and tailored results.


  • Fetch antibiotic physical properties: Enter the antibiotic name to get physical properties such as molecular weight, octanol/water partition coefficient, topological polar surface area, net charge, number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, and analytical volume.


  • Fetch antibiotic 2D structure: Enter the name of the antibiotic to display its 2D chemical structure, allowing for a visual representation of its molecular arrangement.


  • Fetch antibiotic description: Enter the name of the antibiotic to display its description.